When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. This resource covers using logic within writing—logical vocabulary, logical fallacies, and other types of logos-based reasoning.
Before using logic to reach conclusions, it is helpful to know some important vocabulary related to logic. Premise: Proposition used as evidence in an argument. Conclusion: Logical result of the relationship between the premises.
Conclusions serve as the thesis of the argument. Argument: The assertion of a conclusion based on logical premises. Syllogism: The simplest sequence of logical premises and conclusions, devised by Aristotle. Enthymeme: A shortened syllogism which omits the first premise, allowing the audience to fill it in.
For example, "Socrates is mortal because he is a human" is an enthymeme which leaves out the premise "All humans are mortal. Deduction: A process through which the premises provide conclusive proof for the conclusion. Reaching logical conclusions depends on the proper analysis of premises. The goal of a syllogism is to arrange premises so that only one true conclusion is possible.
Premise 1: Non-renewable resources do not exist in infinite supply. Premise 2: Coal is a non-renewable resource. Premise 1: All monkeys are primates.
Premise 2: All primates are mammals. Premise 3: All mammals are vertebrate animals.
Conclusions: Monkeys are vertebrate animals. Example C: Logic allows specific conclusions to be drawn from general premises. Consider the following premises:. Premise 1: All squares are rectangles.
Premise 2: Figure 1 is a square. Conclusion: Figure 1 is also a rectangle. The syllogism is a helpful tool for organizing persuasive logical arguments. However, if used carelessly, syllogisms can instill a false sense of confidence in unfounded conclusions.
The examples in this section demonstrate how this can happen. Example D: Logic requires decisive statements in order to work. Therefore, this syllogism is false:.Students who entered the program before September can choose between the old short-essay General Examination format and the new draft-chapter format.
For those in the Interdepartmental Program of Classical Philosophy, you must take your General Exam no later than the end of your third year May. If any of the above dates occur on a weekend or during recess, the due date will be on the following Monday. Normally the General Examination adviser will chair the student's General Exam.
Selection of the adviser will be a matter of negotiation between the student and a faculty member, in consultation with the Director of Graduate Studies. Late submissions will not normally be accepted and, in any case, will require the prior permission of the Graduate Committee. All students who are allowed to retake their General Examination after a failed attempt are required to do so by following the format of the qualifying exam.
Please prepare your proposal in consultation with your General Exam adviser by the dates listed in the section above. Your proposal will be reviewed and possibly modified by your General Exam committee. The General Examination is an examination on the field in which you intend to write a dissertation, not on the as-yet-unwritten dissertation itself.
Generals consist of an oral exam lasting approximately one hour, preceded a few days earlier by a hour take-home written exam. The Generals proposal will include 12 questions, and the written exam will consist of 6 of these questions, three of which must be answered.
The answers to the three questions will total no more than words, and students are required to include a word count at the end of their examination paper quotations count towards the total word count.
The written exam may be open book; students may have access to their notes; and students are encouraged to prepare their answers in advance. The oral component will begin with the student giving a minute overview of the field of their examination. Examinations are administered by a committee of the faculty, the composition of which will ensure that the student is questioned from a variety of points of view. To pass Generals, students must demonstrate that they are prepared to write a dissertation in the field, and they must also demonstrate that they will be able to defend their dissertation orally.
Your Generals proposal should include a list of readings which you are prepared to answer questions about, and twelve questions you are prepared to answer. In your list of readings, please make sure that the references are full enough so that the examiners can easily find the items listed. It will not do to refer to articles by title only. You may be asked to supply your examiners with copies of works that they have trouble obtaining themselves.
At the time you submit your proposal, let us know any of your preferences about who your examiners will be. However, although we welcome your advice, we cannot promise to follow it. There are many considerations relevant to the choice of an examining committee. The field of the General Examination is that field of philosophy in which you intend to write your dissertation not that your intentions can't change afterward.
The field should be construed as broadly as possible. You are encouraged to present a brief dissertation proposal as part of the specification of your field. We urge you to seek advice about your intended dissertation topic. In that case, a new timeline for completion of the ten units is agreed upon with the student by June 15, and continued enrollment is conditional on implementation of the new timeline.
Part 2 of the General Exam is the qualifying exam. The written part of this exam is constituted by 1 a draft dissertation chapter of between — words, and 2 a dissertation prospectus of 2 — 4 pages.
If you feel the need to exceed these limits with quotations, for exampleconsult with the DGS.
Generals and Dissertations
It is preferred that students enrolled in the regular program take this oral exam in the General Exam period in October of their third year of enrollment.Originality and Accuracy. Experience and Expertise. Our thesis aid and proposal writing service enable customers to learn how to research and write their own term papers, dissertations, thesis papers, and research proposals, and they are responsible for citing us as a reference source.
Our original "Logic" writing is guaranteed to match your particular instructions! For 9 years, our research consultants on topics like "Logic" have aided graduate scholars, master learners, and university undergraduates around the world by offering the most comprehensive research assistance on the Internet for "Logic" assignments and coursework. If you need help with your PhD dissertation, doctoral thesis, research proposal, or any other type of academic paper involving "Logic," our contracted research professionals can begin helping right now!
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Of course, ONLY those writers who possess a corresponding doctoral-level degree in the particular field of study will complete doctoral-level orders. If you order one of our services, a professional and qualified researcher will write a one-of-a-kind, original dissertation or thesis on "Logic" that is based on the exact specifications YOU provide.
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We are quite confident in our "Logic" knowledge and versatile writing skills. Your satisfaction is our top priority! Experience and Expertise Sincewe've written hundreds of doctoral-level thesis papers and dissertations for research—24 hours a day, 7 days a week—on incredibly intricate topics.At school, at work, and in everyday life, argument is one of main ways we exchange ideas with one another.
Academics, business people, scientists, and other professionals all make arguments to determine what to do or think, or to solve a problem by enlisting others to do or believe something they otherwise would not. Not surprisingly, then, argument dominates writing, and training in argument writing is essential for all college students.
This chapter will explore how to define argument, how to talk about argument, how logic works in argument, the main argument types, and a list of logical fallacies. What Are the Components and Vocabulary of Argument? A Repository of Logical Fallacies.
All people, including you, make arguments on a regular basis.
When you make a claim and then support the claim with reasons, you are making an argument. Consider the following:. The two main models of argument desired in college courses as part of the training for academic or professional life are rhetorical argument and academic argument. If rhetoric is the study of the craft of writing and speaking, particularly writing or speaking designed to convince and persuade, the student studying rhetorical argument focuses on how to create an argument that convinces and persuades effectively.
To that end, the student must understand how to think broadly about argument, the particular vocabulary of argument, and the logic of argument. The close sibling of rhetorical argument is academic argument, argument used to discuss and evaluate ideas, usually within a professional field of study, and to convince others of those ideas.
In academic argumentinterpretation and research play the central roles. However, it would be incorrect to say that academic argument and rhetorical argument do not overlap. Indeed, they do, and often. A psychologist not only wishes to prove an important idea with research, but she will also wish to do so in the most effective way possible.
A politician will want to make the most persuasive case for his side, but he should also be mindful of data that may support his points. Thus, throughout this chapter, when you see the term argumentit refers to a broad category including both rhetorical and academic argument.
Before moving to the specific parts and vocabulary of argument, it will be helpful to consider some further ideas about what argument is and what it is not. Consumers of written texts are often tempted to divide writing into two categories: argumentative and non-argumentative.
According to this view, to be argumentative, writing must have the following qualities: It has to defend a position in a debate between two or more opposing sides, it must be on a controversial topic, and the goal of such writing must be to prove the correctness of one point of view over another.
A related definition of argument implies a confrontation, a clash of opinions and personalities, or just a plain verbal fight. It implies a winner and a loser, a right side and a wrong one. These two characteristics of argument—as controversial and as a fight—limit the definition because arguments come in different disguises, from hidden to subtle to commanding.
What if we think of argument as an opportunity for conversation, for sharing with others our point of view on an issue, for showing others our perspective of the world? What if we think of argument as an opportunity to connect with the points of view of others rather than defeating those points of view?
One community that values argument as a type of communication and exchange is the community of scholars.The traditional dissertation is organized into 5 chapters and includes the following elements and pages:.
The following outline is designed to give you an idea of what might be included in various dissertation chapters. It is offered as suggested elements gleaned from AU dissertation handbooks. Your particular program might have other expectations of the chapter titles and its sections. The Dissertation: Chapter Breakdown. Search for:. Previous Next. Are you feeling stuck, unmotivated or overwhelmed?
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Taking the academic manuscript of the dissertation and creating another document relies on a certain amount of transformation to occur.
It certainly requires an ability to copy edit a lengthy manuscript of disparate parts in such a way that it becomes a readable text tailored to a new audience. WEX PhD editors have the editing expertise and breadth of writing exposure to help you meet this goal. This is a service available only to the Antioch University community. Go to Top.Last Updated on December 13, by Ayla Myrick.
After the prospectus is approved, some of the review of literature may be moved into Chapter 2, which then becomes part of the proposal to do research. Chapter 1 is the engine that drives the rest of the document, and it must be a complete empirical argument as is found in courts of law.
It should be filled with proofs throughout. It is not a creative writing project in a creative writing class; hence, once a word or phrase is established in Chapter 1, use the same word or phrase throughout the dissertation. The content is normally stylized into five chapters, repetitive in some sections from dissertation to dissertation.
A lengthy dissertation may have more than five chapters, but regardless, most universities limit the total number of pages to due to microfilming and binding considerations in libraries in those institutions requiring hard copies.
How to Create Your Dissertation Outline
Following is an outline of the content of the empirical argument of Chapter 1. Do not keep the reader waiting to learn the precise subject of the dissertation. State the general field of interest in one or two paragraphs, and end with a sentence that states what study will accomplish. This section is critically important as it must contain some mention of all the subject matter in the following Chapter 2 Review of the Literature 2 and the methodology in Chapter 3.
Key words should abound that will subsequently be used again in Chapter 2. A minimum of two to three citations to the literature per paragraph is advisable.Qualitative analysis of interview data: A step-by-step guide for coding/indexing
The paragraphs must be a summary of unresolved issues, conflicting findings, social concerns, or educational, national, or international issues, and lead to the next section, the statement of the problem. The problem is the gap in the knowledge. The focus of the Background of the Problem is where a gap in the knowledge is found in the current body of empirical research literature. Arising from the background statement is this statement of the exact gap in the knowledge discussed in previous paragraphs that reviewed the most current literature found.
A gap in the knowledge is the entire reason for the study, so state it specifically and exactly. The Purpose of the Study is a statement contained within one or two paragraphs that identifies the research design, such as qualitative, quantitative, mixed methods, ethnographic, or another design.
The research variables, if a quantitative study, are identified, for instance, independent, dependent, comparisons, relationships, or other variables. The population that will be used is identified, whether it will be randomly or purposively chosen, and the location of the study is summarized. Most of these factors will be discussed in detail in Chapter 3. The significance is a statement of why it is important to determine the answer to the gap in the knowledge, and is related to improving the human condition.
The contribution to the body of knowledge is described, and summarizes who will be able to use the knowledge to make better decisions, improve policy, advance science, or other uses of the new information. The primary research question is the basis for data collection and arises from the Purpose of the Study.
There may be one, or there may be several. When the research is finished, the contribution to the knowledge will be the answer to these questions.Methodology chapter of a dissertation. An effective research methodology is grounded in your overall approach — whether qualitative or quantitative — and adequately describes the methods you used. When students can plan to go, where the year to outsource, proper research It is very important to formulate a good action study question as it gives a central focus to your entire research paper and tells you what action you must take for the solution of the problem.
Hence the reason rationale for a discussion of the research design and methodology: Firstly, this is to provide the plan or blueprint for the research Chapter Three: Research Methodology 3. The process of action research is a sequence of events comprising of iterative cycles of stages. Search Now. Chapter III Methodology 3 Research phenomenon The global economic recession has brought back a shift in the employment pattern which in turn affects the education and career requirements.
Acknowledgement sample of a general aims of studies focus on the research paper may use a. Research methodology indicates the logic of development of the process used to generate theory that is procedural framework within which the research is conducted Remenyi et al.
A qualitative Research methodology sample thesis has a description and justification of the methodological approach under which the observation method example of methodology chapter in action research dissertation was designed and the interpretation of the results of the implementation qualitative or quantitative.
An academic researcher can choose more than one of the above-mentioned options to collect data as long as such decision is explained well in the PhD thesis or dissertation Mixed-methods research combines both quantitative and qualitative approaches, as is common in case studies, surveys and action research.
Close communication professionals like finance and responsibility for instance, and college, environment. The demographic data consisted of age, sex, years of experience and adequacy of training and support. Sample Dissertation Overview The problem generally is addressed in two related parts: The problem statement is contained in Chapter 1, and a review of the related research, theory, and professional literature is described in Chapter 2.
The methodology or methods example of methodology chapter in action research dissertation section explains what you did and how you did it, allowing readers to evaluate the reliability and validity of your research of previous research findings and available literature, where applicable, in order to identify similarities and differences between this study and previous studies and literature.
Search for your ideal role. The chapter will discuss in detail the various stages of developing the methodology of the current study. Analysis and synthesis 6. Sample Action Research Example. Dissertations using those methods will usually benefit from both the guidelines for quantitative research and those for qualitative research Chapter Three: Research Methodology 3.
The use of content analysis, a survey questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews in sequence within a mixed methods research design addressed the purpose of the research: to improve understanding of the organizational, cultural. The art of the college essay Latest research papers in microbiology, how to write good essay by lauren starkey pdf. Other articles have discussed the desirability for Doctoral students looking for dissertation help to set up work-study teams, and the benefit that these teams can find from using action research processes throughout their dissertation writing journey.
Justify the chosen research design. This is a research method called action research. Summarize the demographics of the sample, and present in a table format after the narration Simon, The see method for writing an essay, format of dissertation abstract, my last day at school outstanding essay, the purpose of a case study.
Chapter 3 dissertation outlines specific methods chosen by a writer to research a problem.
"Logic" Thesis Statement, Writing a Thesis on "Logic," and Doctoral Dissertation Service
Essay on good website The research title, research questions, hypothesis, objectives and the area of study generally determine what the best method of research in the dissertation would be. Introduction 2. The example dissertation methodologies below were written by students to help you with your own studies. The methodology part.