When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. MLA Modern Language Association style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.
MLA Format – In-Text Citations and Quotations
This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook 8 th ed. When you directly quote the works of others in your paper, you will format quotations differently depending on their length.
Below are some basic guidelines for incorporating quotations into your paper. Please note that all pages in MLA should be double-spaced. To indicate short quotations four typed lines or fewer of prose or three lines of verse in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks.
Provide the author and specific page number in the case of verse, provide line numbers in the in-text citation, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation.
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Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage, but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.
Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow.
By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house.
Bronte When citing long sections of poetry four lines of verse or morekeep formatting as close to the original as possible.Insert information here A. Author page numberinsert more information here B.
Author page number. In-text citations: Print sources Print sources include books, scholarly journal articles, newspapers, etc. When a work has multiple volumes this is different from editions! In-text citations: Non-print and electronic sources Before utilizing any information found on the Internet, be sure to evaluate the work, which ensures that it is a credible source Citing work from websites that do not provide the correct information can be extremely detrimental to validating the argument of the paper Non-print and electronic sources often lack page numbers, so do not worry if one cannot be found in the source For electronic and Internet sourcesbe sure to follow these guidelines in the parenthetical citation: The text in the first item that appears in the Works Cited entry author name, article name, website name, etc.
In-text citations: Miscellaneous information and sources Sometimes, authors of a source e. Example: Insert information here A. If a paper cites multiple works by the same authorinclude a shortened title for the particular work that is being referenced this will distinguish each work from the others Short titles of books are placed in italics Short titles of articles are placed in quotation marks Example: Doe argues that.
Sometimes, when providing clarity or piecing together information from multiple sources, there may be more than one source in the same parenthetical citation To cite multiple sources in one in-text citation, separate the citations by a semi-colon. Example: Insert information Authorone page number; Authortwo page number. Line 4 of poem.When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
Citations - MLA: In-Text Citations - Quotations & Paraphrasing
MLA Modern Language Association style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook 8 th ed. Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question. In MLA Style, referring to the works of others in your text is done using parenthetical citations.
This method involves providing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. Usually, the simplest way to do this is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence i. However, as the examples below will illustrate, there are situations where it makes sense to put the parenthetical elsewhere in the sentence, or even to leave information out. MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation.
This means that the author's last name and the page number s from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number s should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence.
For example:. Both citations in the examples above, and Wordsworthtell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information:.
These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry on the Works Cited page:. Burke, Kenneth. University of California Press, When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation.In MLA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information.
If you're using information from a single source more than once in succession i. Note: If using this simplified in-text citation creates ambiguity regarding the source being referred to, use the full in-text citation format. If your quotation extends to more than four lines as you're typing your essay, it is a long quotation. The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body.
His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too. Golding Mother-infant attachment has been a leading topic of developmental research since John Bowlby found that "children raised in institutions were deficient in emotional and personality development" Hunt For example:.
Note: The period goes outside the brackets, at the end of your in-text citation. If you would like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a semi-colon.
Smith 42; Bennett It Takes Two ; Brock Note: The sources within the in-text citation do not need to be in alphabetical order for MLA style.
When you write information or ideas from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion. Include a full in-text citation with the author name and page number if there is one. Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies Hunt Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies Hunt 50, 55, It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older.
This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. General How Do I Cite?
About In-Text Citations In MLA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information.
Create in-text citations for the following: Direct quotes Paraphrasing. Repeated Use of Sources If you're using information from a single source more than once in succession i. Rules for Long Quotations There are 4 rules that apply to long quotations that are different from regular quotations: The line before your long quotation, when you're introducing the quote, usually ends with a colon.
The long quotation is indented half an inch from the rest of the text, so it looks like a block of text. There are no quotation marks around the quotation. In-Text Citation For More Than One Source If you would like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a semi-colon. Examples: Smith 42; Bennett Paraphrasing When you write information or ideas from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion.MLA 8th Edition Government Sources Citation
Paraphrasing from One Page Include a full in-text citation with the author name and page number if there is one. For example: Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies Hunt Unknown Author Author Unknown: If the author's name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title.
Follow the same formatting that was used in the works cited list, such as quotation marks. Where you'd normally put the author's last name, instead use the first one, two, or three words from the title.
Don't count initial articles like "A", "An" or "The". You should provide enough words to make it clear which work you're referring to from your Works Cited list.Common Signal Phrases. Quoted material should be reproduced word-for-word and exactly as it appears in the original source.
Unless you indicate a change in brackets or parentheses, changes must not be made in spelling, capitalization, or interior punctuation. Include the author's last name and page number s. If the quote is under four lines long, it should be incorporated into the text and enclosed using quotation marks.
Author Incorporated into Text Harper Lee writes as the character Atticus Fitch in To Kill a Mockingbirdgiving advice to his young daughter in the famous line, "You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view… until you climb inside of his skin and walk around in it" Author After Quotation "You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view… Until you climb inside of his skin and walk around in it" Lee If the quote is part or all of a single line of poetry, it can be incorporated into the text and enclosed using quotation marks.
I contain multitudes" Author After Quotation "Do I contradict myself? I contain multitudes" Whitman It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge.
If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Direct Quote Quoted material should be reproduced word-for-word and exactly as it appears in the original source. Poetry If the quote is part or all of a single line of poetry, it can be incorporated into the text and enclosed using quotation marks. Report a problem. Subjects: Class research guide.Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source.
For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. MLA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: Smith If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: Smith.
A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech Derwing et al. Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing and others conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program Derwing, Tracey M.
Thomas, Holly K. University of Colorado, Boulder, Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author if known. If the author is not known, use the title as the in-text citation.
Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list. Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages. Entire website with author: In-text citation Parents play an important role in helping children learn techniques for coping with bullying Kraiser.
Reference entry Kraizer, Sherryll. Safe Child.
Coalition for Children,www. Reference entry "All Things Nittany. Penn State University,www. In MLA style the author's name can be included either in the narrative text of your paper, or in parentheses following the reference to the source.
Gass and Varonis found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic Gass and Varonis If you are looking for a simple and fast way to cite your sources, then GradeMiners has prepared something for you! We have created an MLA citation generator to let you cite sources without a hassle. Use it at any time you need to create citations, bibliographies, footnotes and other elements and you will save your valuable time and get everything done automatically!
With the help of our online program, you will easily assemble the necessary material into a correctly-formatted reference page or an in-text citation that clearly demonstrates the sources you have used to conduct research.
Our open-access MLA format citation generator allows you to cite sources without frustration so that you can focus on something much more important: creating a perfect academic paper. Does your paper require some unusual sources, like a handwritten copy or a website page? Are you unsure about how to cite them correctly?
Or are you struggling with footnotes and endnotes without an idea about how to format them correctly? In a word, if you need any kind of help with your citations, make sure to have our useful tool at hand. Out MLA reference generator will help you cite like a boss — just insert the necessary details into the required fields and get a citation done perfectly!
Certain types of academic papers require you to use the information you have gathered from the external sources. Otherwise, your professor will blame you for plagiarizing ideas of other people, which can bring you serious problems: starting with a lower grade and up to the exclusion. You have to use citation MLA generator for your works to make sure that all materials you have used are acknowledged with citations.
There are paper types that cannot be written without supporting sources, like research papers, book reports, term papers, and others. So be sure to take this seriously! Thus, formatting your document properly can be a tiresome task. To validate your conclusions and support your point of view with the help of correct citations, use our website and make the entire process as simple as a piece of cake!
Your long and tedious research journey ends here — just entrust the final touch to our tool and have a rest! Most students say that this format is the simplest of all.
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